Scanning QR codes with C# in Unity 3D

It’s been a while since my last post. These days, I have been busy with our Unity project to integrate Unity3D graphic engine into our software eco system. An interesting sub-task is to implement a QR code scanner in our Unity project.

The ZXing.Net library did a wonderful job for me. You can download from nuget or github.

using System.Collections;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Net;
using UnityEngine;
using UnityEngine.UI;
using ZXing;

public class QRScanner : MonoBehaviour
    WebCamTexture webcamTexture;
    string QrCode = string.Empty;
    public AudioSource beepSound;

    void Start()
        var renderer = GetComponent<RawImage>();
        webcamTexture = new WebCamTexture(512, 512);
        renderer.material.mainTexture = webcamTexture;

    IEnumerator GetQRCode()
        IBarcodeReader barCodeReader = new BarcodeReader();
        var snap = new Texture2D(webcamTexture.width, webcamTexture.height, TextureFormat.ARGB32, false);
        while (string.IsNullOrEmpty(QrCode))
                var Result= barCodeReader.Decode(snap.GetRawTextureData(), webcamTexture.width, webcamTexture.height, RGBLuminanceSource.BitmapFormat.ARGB32);
                if (Result!= null)
                    QrCode = Result.Text;
                    if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(QrCode))
                         Debug.Log("DECODED TEXT FROM QR: " + QrCode);
            catch (Exception ex) { Debug.LogWarning(ex.Message); }
            yield return null;

I was using Unity 2019 LTS to experiment with this.

The whole project can be found at

C# UserControl IPTextBox

I am looking for a TextBox control, which can validate and filter out IP Address. After a bit research, I come with this It’s easy to implement and simple to use. Just like normal TextBox.


using System.Windows.Forms;
class IPTextBox : TextBox
    public IPTextBox() : base()
        SetStyle(ControlStyles.ResizeRedraw, true);

    protected override CreateParams CreateParams
            var cp = base.CreateParams;
            cp.ClassName = "SysIPAddress32";
            return cp;

Another complete solution can be found

Microsoft .NET Framework 4.x Redistributable Installer Link

Sometimes, it’s hard to find Microsoft .Net framework 4.x installer link.

Here is my collections for the link:


.NET Framework version Redistributable installation
4.6 Preview Download page for 4.6 web installer
Download page for 4.6 offline installer
4.5.2 Download page for 4.5.2 web installer
Download page for 4.5.2 offline installer
4.5.1 Download page for 4.5.1 web installer
Download page for 4.5.1 offline installer
4.5 Download page for 4.5 web installer
Download page for 4.5 offline installer
4 Download page for 4 web installer
Download page for 4 offline installer
4 Client Profile Download page for 4 Client Profile web installer
Download page for 4 Client Profile offline installer


Download a hotfix without contacting Microsoft?

I am working on Windows 7 Embedded recently, and need some hotfix, which is not publicly released by Microsoft. I found this article very useful.

How can you download a hotfix without contacting Microsoft?

Here is the tricks:

A customer can get the fix they want without calling in to Microsoft, assuming they know the KB number of the hotfix they want and can remember the URL format for a self-service hotfix request:


Resize photo in C#

Today, my friend asked me to recommend a free resize photo tool, and he got lots of photos. I really don’t know. Normally I use MS Paint and select Stretch and Skew. If here are many photos, it would take ages. I then wrote a small tool for him using C#. The code is fairly simple cause .Net Framework provides huge library to use.

private void ResizePhoto()
	//find all jpg photos in given folder
	string[] jpgFiles = Directory.GetFiles(photoPath,"*.jpg");
	foreach(string file in jpgFiles)
		//load orignial photo into memory
		Image image = Image.FromFile(file);
		//create new photo using new size from original photo
		Image newImage = new Bitmap(image,new Size(newWidth,newHeight));
		//give a new file name
		string newFileName = "newsize" + file;
		//save new photo


Add watermark in your photo using C#

Some of my photos need to be added watermark to prevent abusing. I just found a easy way to add watermark into your photo using C#. Here is the code to share.

private void button1_Click(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
	OpenFileDialog of = new OpenFileDialog();
	of.Filter = "Image Files (*.bmp;*.emf;*.exif;*.gif;*.jpg;*.png;*.tif;*.wmf)|*.bmp;*.emf;*.exif;*.gif;*.jpg;*.png;*.tif;*.wmf";

	if(of.ShowDialog(this) == DialogResult.OK)
		Image image = Image.FromFile(of.FileName);
		Graphics g = Graphics.FromImage(image);

		// Create a solid brush to write the watermark text on the image
		Brush myBrush = new SolidBrush(Color.Black);
		Font myFont = this.Font;
		// Calculate the size of the text
		SizeF sz = g.MeasureString("", myFont);

		// drawing position (X,Y)
		float X =(image.Width - sz.Width)/2f;
		float Y = image.Height/2f;

		SaveFileDialog sf = new SaveFileDialog();
		sf.Filter = of.Filter;
		if(sf.ShowDialog(this) == DialogResult.OK)

This is the sample

watermark sample
watermark sample

Build your own network usage monitor in C# (raw socket)

Although there are lots of excellent network monitor available, e.g NetWorx, DU Meter, I just think to build my own network monitor. Firstly I can explore the socket programming, secondly it’s free of charge.

OK, let’s do it.

Create a new WinForm project from Visual Studio

Network monitor
Network monitor





public MainForm()
	// Required for Windows Form Designer support
	// Set your PC ip address
//when main window showing up, we update meter text
private void ShowMainWindow(object sender, System.EventArgs e)
	todayUsage.Text = string.Format("Today's Usage: {0}",FormatSize((ulong)rs.TotalReceivedBytes));	
//define ip header
public   struct   IPHeader  
	[FieldOffset(0)]    public  byte       ip_verlen;    
	[FieldOffset(1)]    public  byte       ip_tos;    
	[FieldOffset(2)]    public  ushort     ip_totallength;  
	[FieldOffset(4)]    public  ushort     ip_id;  
	[FieldOffset(6)]    public  ushort     ip_offset;    
	[FieldOffset(8)]    public  byte       ip_ttl;    
	[FieldOffset(9)]    public  byte       ip_protocol;    
	[FieldOffset(10)]   public  ushort   ip_checksum;    
	[FieldOffset(12)]   public  uint       ip_srcaddr;    
	[FieldOffset(16)]   public  uint       ip_destaddr;    
//the core function - raw socket   
public   class   RawSocket  
	private		bool	error_occurred;  
	private	  int	totalReceivedBytes = 0;
	private	  const   int   BUFFER_SIZE = 8192;
	private	  byte []	receive_buf = new byte[BUFFER_SIZE];
	private	  Socket	socket   =   null;    
	const	  int   SIO_R = unchecked((int)0x98000001);  
	const	  int   SIO_1 = unchecked((int)0x98000002);  
	const	  int   SIO_2 = unchecked((int)0x98000003);  

	public   int   TotalReceivedBytes
		get	{return   totalReceivedBytes;}  
		set	{totalReceivedBytes = value;}

	public   RawSocket() 
	public   void   CreateAndBindSocket(string   IP)
		socket   =   new   Socket(AddressFamily.InterNetwork,   SocketType.Raw,   ProtocolType.IP);  
		socket.Blocking   =   false; 
		socket.Bind(new   IPEndPoint(IPAddress.Parse(IP),   0));  
		if   (SetSocketOption()==false)   
	public   bool   ErrorOccurred  
		get  { return   error_occurred;}  

	public   void   Shutdown()  
		error_occurred = true;
		if(socket   !=   null)  
	private   bool   SetSocketOption()  
		bool   ret_value   =   true;  
			socket.SetSocketOption(SocketOptionLevel.IP,   SocketOptionName.HeaderIncluded,   1);       
			byte   []IN   =   new   byte[4]{1,   0,   0,   0};  
			byte   []OUT   =   new   byte[4];      
			int   ret_code   =   socket.IOControl(SIO_R,   IN,   OUT);
			ret_code   =   OUT[0]   +   OUT[1]   +   OUT[2]   +   OUT[3];   
			if(ret_code   !=   0)   ret_value   =   false;  
			ret_value   =   false;  
		return   ret_value;  

	unsafe   private   bool   IsInternetTraffic(byte[] buf)  
		byte	temp_protocol=0;  
		uint	temp_version=0;  
		uint	temp_ip_srcaddr=0;  
		string  sourceIP;  
		fixed(byte   *fixed_buf   =   buf)  
			IPHeader   *   head   =   (IPHeader   *)   fixed_buf;  
			temp_protocol   =   head->ip_protocol;  
			temp_version   =(uint)(head->ip_verlen   &   0xF0)   >>   4;  
			temp_ip_srcaddr   =   head->ip_srcaddr;  
			sourceIP   =   new   IPAddress(temp_ip_srcaddr).ToString();  
                //we only capture internet traffic  
		return !sourceIP.StartsWith("10.") 
			&& !sourceIP.StartsWith("172.16.") 
			&& !sourceIP.StartsWith("127.") 
			&& !sourceIP.StartsWith("192.168.");
	private void ReceiveCallback( IAsyncResult ar)
			int received_bytes = socket.EndReceive(ar);
			if(received_bytes>0 && IsInternetTraffic(receive_buf))
				totalReceivedBytes += received_bytes;
			socket.BeginReceive(receive_buf,0,BUFFER_SIZE,SocketFlags.None,new AsyncCallback(ReceiveCallback),null);
	public   void   Run()    
		socket.BeginReceive(receive_buf,0,BUFFER_SIZE,SocketFlags.None,new AsyncCallback(ReceiveCallback),null);

Exchange Web Services (EWS) programming with Exchange Server 2010 in C#

I have an application to sniff email notification from Exchange Server and automatically insert data record to SQL database. Because recently our IT department upgraded MS Exchange Server to 2010 and Exchange Server 2010 does not support WebDAV any more, my robust WebDAV program is dead 🙁

To revive my application, I have to migrant WebDAV to EWS, because WebDAV has been replaced by Exchange Web Services (EWS). EWS is relatively new, and there is no too much information I can use. Here to share my EWS programming experience.

private void ReceiveEmail(object sender, EventArgs e)
    ExchangeServiceBinding esb = new ExchangeServiceBinding();
    esb.Credentials = new NetworkCredential(username, password, domain);
    ServicePointManager.ServerCertificateValidationCallback =
      delegate(Object obj, X509Certificate certificate, X509Chain chain, SslPolicyErrors errors)
          // trust any certificate
          return true;

    esb.Url = @"https://exchangeserver/EWS/Exchange.asmx";

    FindItemType findRequest = new FindItemType();
    findRequest.ItemShape = new ItemResponseShapeType();
    findRequest.ItemShape.BaseShape = DefaultShapeNamesType.AllProperties;

    DistinguishedFolderIdType inbox = new DistinguishedFolderIdType();
    inbox.Id = DistinguishedFolderIdNameType.inbox;
    findRequest.ParentFolderIds = new []{inbox};
    findRequest.Traversal = ItemQueryTraversalType.Shallow;

    findRequest.ItemShape.BodyType = BodyTypeResponseType.Text;
    findRequest.ItemShape.BodyTypeSpecified = true;

    FindItemResponseType response = esb.FindItem(findRequest);
    FindItemResponseMessageType responseMessage =
          as FindItemResponseMessageType;
    ArrayOfRealItemsType items = responseMessage.RootFolder.Item as ArrayOfRealItemsType;

    foreach (MessageType item in items.Items)
         MessageType msg = (MessageType) item;
         string emailBody = GetMessageBody(esb, msg);
         //delete email

private string GetMessageBody(ExchangeServiceBinding binding, MessageType message)
    string messageBody = string.Empty;
    MessageType temp = null;

    // Call GetItem on each ItemId to retrieve the
    // item’s Body property and any AttachmentIds.
    // Form the GetItem request.
    GetItemType getItemRequest = new GetItemType();

    getItemRequest.ItemShape = new ItemResponseShapeType();
    // AllProperties on a GetItem request WILL return
    // the message body.
    getItemRequest.ItemShape.BaseShape = DefaultShapeNamesType.AllProperties;

    getItemRequest.ItemIds = new ItemIdType[1];
    getItemRequest.ItemIds[0] = (BaseItemIdType)message.ItemId;

    // Here is the call to exchange.
    GetItemResponseType getItemResponse = binding.GetItem(getItemRequest);

    // We only passed in one ItemId to the GetItem
    // request. Therefore, we can assume that
    // we got at most one Item back.
    ItemInfoResponseMessageType getItemResponseMessage =
        as ItemInfoResponseMessageType;

    if (getItemResponseMessage != null)
        if (getItemResponseMessage.ResponseClass ==
            && getItemResponseMessage.Items.Items != null
            && getItemResponseMessage.Items.Items.Length > 0)
                temp = (MessageType)getItemResponseMessage.Items.Items[0];

                if (temp.Body != null)
                    messageBody = temp.Body.Value;
    return messageBody;

private void DeleteMessage(ExchangeServiceBinding binding, MessageType message)
    // Call DeleteItem on each ItemId to delete the message
    // Form the DeleteItem request.
    DeleteItemType delItemRequest = new DeleteItemType();

    delItemRequest.ItemIds = new ItemIdType[1];
    delItemRequest.ItemIds[0] = (BaseItemIdType)message.ItemId;
    // Here is the call to exchange.
    DeleteItemResponseType delItemResponse = binding.DeleteItem(delItemRequest);

Dynamically update parity bit during serial communication in C#

Today boss asked me to implement a serial com port simulator. I used MSCommLib COM library in C# to develop this simulator.

The serial protocol I am working on is a bit strange:

The message synchronization is achieved via a technique utilizing the parity bit of serially of transmitted data. The parity bit sent with each byte no longer denotes the byte’s parity, but the parity bit is used instead to indicate the start of new messages.  In this mode, the parity bit is often referred to as the “wake-up bit”.  The parity bit is now used in the following manner:  when the parity bit is set, this denotes the start (i.e. the first byte) of a new message. , the parity bit (or wake-up bit), is only ever set on the first byte (i.e. the address byte) of a message.  The remainder of the message has parity forced to zero.

Therefore, this protocol needs dynamically update the parity bit settings during the message sending. There are many articles about generic serial com programming. However,  it’s hard to find the parity bit toggling. After few hours exploring, I found a way to achieve this.

Like other serial protocol, we have to initialize com port

public void InitComPort(int portNumber)
	// Set the com port to be 1
	m_ComPort.CommPort = (short)portNumber;

	// This port is already open, close it to reset it.
	if (m_ComPort.PortOpen)
		m_ComPort.PortOpen = false;

	// Trigger the OnComm event whenever data is received
	m_ComPort.RThreshold = 1;  

	//e, Even. m, Mark. m, (Default) None. o, Odd. s, Space
	// Set the port to 19200 baud, even parity bit, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit (all standard)
	m_ComPort.Settings = "19200,e,8,1";

	// Force the DTR line high, used sometimes to hang up modems
	m_ComPort.DTREnable = true;

	// No handshaking is used
	m_ComPort.Handshaking = MSCommLib.HandshakeConstants.comNone;

	// Use this line instead for byte array input, best for most communications
	m_ComPort.InputMode = MSCommLib.InputModeConstants.comInputModeBinary;

	// Read the entire waiting data when com.Input is used
	m_ComPort.InputLen = 0;

	// Don't discard nulls, 0x00 is a useful byte
	m_ComPort.NullDiscard = false;

	// Attach the event handler
	m_ComPort.OnComm += new MSCommLib.DMSCommEvents_OnCommEventHandler(OnComm);

	m_ComPort.ParityReplace = "0";

	// Open the com port
	m_ComPort.PortOpen = true;

Here is the way to toggle the parity bit during sending message

private void SendThread()
		m_ComPort.PortOpen = false;
		// Change port setting, toggle the parity bit to 1
		m_ComPort.Settings = "19200,m,8,1";
		m_ComPort.PortOpen = true;
		m_ComPort.Output = addr;

		// wait 10 ms to toggle parity bit
		m_ComPort.PortOpen = false;
		// Change port setting, toggle the parity bit to 0
		m_ComPort.Settings = "19200,s,8,1";
		m_ComPort.PortOpen = true;
		m_ComPort.Output = packet;

Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) in C#

Microsoft .Net Framework is so powerful, and it provides so many common libraries to use. However, recently I am working on a legacy project to work out CRC32, and I can find no where. OK, I have to DIY. If you need it by chance, here are the source code.

/// Calculates a 32bit Cyclic Redundancy Checksum (CRC) using the
/// same polynomial used by Zip.
public class CRC32 : HashAlgorithm

    private static readonly UInt32[] crc32Table =
	0x00000000, 0x77073096, 0xee0e612c, 0x990951ba, 0x076dc419,
	0x706af48f, 0xe963a535, 0x9e6495a3, 0x0edb8832, 0x79dcb8a4,
	0xe0d5e91e, 0x97d2d988, 0x09b64c2b, 0x7eb17cbd, 0xe7b82d07,
	0x90bf1d91, 0x1db71064, 0x6ab020f2, 0xf3b97148, 0x84be41de,
	0x1adad47d, 0x6ddde4eb, 0xf4d4b551, 0x83d385c7, 0x136c9856,
	0x646ba8c0, 0xfd62f97a, 0x8a65c9ec, 0x14015c4f, 0x63066cd9,
	0xfa0f3d63, 0x8d080df5, 0x3b6e20c8, 0x4c69105e, 0xd56041e4,
	0xa2677172, 0x3c03e4d1, 0x4b04d447, 0xd20d85fd, 0xa50ab56b,
	0x35b5a8fa, 0x42b2986c, 0xdbbbc9d6, 0xacbcf940, 0x32d86ce3,
	0x45df5c75, 0xdcd60dcf, 0xabd13d59, 0x26d930ac, 0x51de003a,
	0xc8d75180, 0xbfd06116, 0x21b4f4b5, 0x56b3c423, 0xcfba9599,
	0xb8bda50f, 0x2802b89e, 0x5f058808, 0xc60cd9b2, 0xb10be924,
	0x2f6f7c87, 0x58684c11, 0xc1611dab, 0xb6662d3d, 0x76dc4190,
	0x01db7106, 0x98d220bc, 0xefd5102a, 0x71b18589, 0x06b6b51f,
	0x9fbfe4a5, 0xe8b8d433, 0x7807c9a2, 0x0f00f934, 0x9609a88e,
	0xe10e9818, 0x7f6a0dbb, 0x086d3d2d, 0x91646c97, 0xe6635c01,
	0x6b6b51f4, 0x1c6c6162, 0x856530d8, 0xf262004e, 0x6c0695ed,
	0x1b01a57b, 0x8208f4c1, 0xf50fc457, 0x65b0d9c6, 0x12b7e950,
	0x8bbeb8ea, 0xfcb9887c, 0x62dd1ddf, 0x15da2d49, 0x8cd37cf3,
	0xfbd44c65, 0x4db26158, 0x3ab551ce, 0xa3bc0074, 0xd4bb30e2,
	0x4adfa541, 0x3dd895d7, 0xa4d1c46d, 0xd3d6f4fb, 0x4369e96a,
	0x346ed9fc, 0xad678846, 0xda60b8d0, 0x44042d73, 0x33031de5,
	0xaa0a4c5f, 0xdd0d7cc9, 0x5005713c, 0x270241aa, 0xbe0b1010,
	0xc90c2086, 0x5768b525, 0x206f85b3, 0xb966d409, 0xce61e49f,
	0x5edef90e, 0x29d9c998, 0xb0d09822, 0xc7d7a8b4, 0x59b33d17,
	0x2eb40d81, 0xb7bd5c3b, 0xc0ba6cad, 0xedb88320, 0x9abfb3b6,
	0x03b6e20c, 0x74b1d29a, 0xead54739, 0x9dd277af, 0x04db2615,
	0x73dc1683, 0xe3630b12, 0x94643b84, 0x0d6d6a3e, 0x7a6a5aa8,
	0xe40ecf0b, 0x9309ff9d, 0x0a00ae27, 0x7d079eb1, 0xf00f9344,
	0x8708a3d2, 0x1e01f268, 0x6906c2fe, 0xf762575d, 0x806567cb,
	0x196c3671, 0x6e6b06e7, 0xfed41b76, 0x89d32be0, 0x10da7a5a,
	0x67dd4acc, 0xf9b9df6f, 0x8ebeeff9, 0x17b7be43, 0x60b08ed5,
	0xd6d6a3e8, 0xa1d1937e, 0x38d8c2c4, 0x4fdff252, 0xd1bb67f1,
	0xa6bc5767, 0x3fb506dd, 0x48b2364b, 0xd80d2bda, 0xaf0a1b4c,
	0x36034af6, 0x41047a60, 0xdf60efc3, 0xa867df55, 0x316e8eef,
	0x4669be79, 0xcb61b38c, 0xbc66831a, 0x256fd2a0, 0x5268e236,
	0xcc0c7795, 0xbb0b4703, 0x220216b9, 0x5505262f, 0xc5ba3bbe,
	0xb2bd0b28, 0x2bb45a92, 0x5cb36a04, 0xc2d7ffa7, 0xb5d0cf31,
	0x2cd99e8b, 0x5bdeae1d, 0x9b64c2b0, 0xec63f226, 0x756aa39c,
	0x026d930a, 0x9c0906a9, 0xeb0e363f, 0x72076785, 0x05005713,
	0x95bf4a82, 0xe2b87a14, 0x7bb12bae, 0x0cb61b38, 0x92d28e9b,
	0xe5d5be0d, 0x7cdcefb7, 0x0bdbdf21, 0x86d3d2d4, 0xf1d4e242,
	0x68ddb3f8, 0x1fda836e, 0x81be16cd, 0xf6b9265b, 0x6fb077e1,
	0x18b74777, 0x88085ae6, 0xff0f6a70, 0x66063bca, 0x11010b5c,
	0x8f659eff, 0xf862ae69, 0x616bffd3, 0x166ccf45, 0xa00ae278,
	0xd70dd2ee, 0x4e048354, 0x3903b3c2, 0xa7672661, 0xd06016f7,
	0x4969474d, 0x3e6e77db, 0xaed16a4a, 0xd9d65adc, 0x40df0b66,
	0x37d83bf0, 0xa9bcae53, 0xdebb9ec5, 0x47b2cf7f, 0x30b5ffe9,
	0xbdbdf21c, 0xcabac28a, 0x53b39330, 0x24b4a3a6, 0xbad03605,
	0xcdd70693, 0x54de5729, 0x23d967bf, 0xb3667a2e, 0xc4614ab8,
	0x5d681b02, 0x2a6f2b94, 0xb40bbe37, 0xc30c8ea1, 0x5a05df1b,

    private UInt32 hash;
    private UInt32 seed;
    private const UInt32 DefaultSeed = 0xffffffff;

    /// Construct an instance of the CRC32 class, pre-initialising the table
    /// for speed of lookup.
    public CRC32()
        this.seed = DefaultSeed;

    public override int HashSize
            return 32;

    public CRC32(UInt32 seed)
        this.seed = seed;

    protected override byte[] HashFinal()
        hash = ~hash;
        this.HashValue = new byte[] {
						(byte)((hash>>24) & 0xff),
						(byte)((hash>>16) & 0xff),
						(byte)((hash>>8) & 0xff),
						(byte)(hash & 0xff)
        return HashValue;

    protected override void HashCore(byte[] buffer, int start, int length)
        for (int i = start; i>8) 
                          ^ crc32Table[(buffer[i]) ^ ((hash) & 0x000000FF)];

    public override void Initialize()
        hash = seed;